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History - Orientation - Information - Dangers Annoyances - Sights - Activities - Walking Tour - Courses - Ha Noi For Childern - Tour - Festivals Events - Sleeping - Eating - Drinking - Entertainment - Shopping - Getting There Away - Getting Around - Around Ha Noi - Ho Chi Minh Trail Museum - Perfume Pagoda - Handicraft Villages - Thay Tay Phuong Pagoadas - Ba Vi National Park - Co Loa Citadel - Tam Dao Hill Station

 

In Ha Noi, visitors will enjoy an incomparable combination of tradition, elegance and progress.
The northern metropolis possesses a unique architecture of beautiful colonial villas and streets lined with old trees. However, just as the rest of the country, its capital is undergoing major changes. Wide avenues and highways are being created, hotels and office buildings are also being
built, and giving a whole new looks to the city. Noi Bai International Airport, 35km from the centre of Ha Noi, is one of the two biggest airports in the country. The airport is being modernized.
Ha Noi means "the hinterland between the rivers" (Ha: river, Noi: interior). The portion of the Red River embracing Ha Noi is approximately 30km long. Ha Noi also characteristically contains many beautiful lakes, which are the lungs of the city, with their surrounding gardens and trees providing a vital source of energy.


CLIMATE
Ha Noi is situated in a tropical monsoon zone with two main seasons. During the dry season, which lasts from October to April, it is cold and there is very little rainfall, except from January to March, when the weather is still cold but there is some light rain. The wet season, from May to September, is hot with heavy rains and storms. The average annual temperature is 23.2<>C (73.7°F) and the aver¬age annual rainfall is 1,800 mm (70.8 inches). The average temperature in winter is 17.2°C (62.90F), but can go down to 5°C (41 °F). The average temperature in summer is 29.2°C (84.6°F), but can reach up to 40°C (104<>F).


ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS
Encompassing five outlying districts (Gia Lam, Dong Anh, Thanh Tri, Tu Liem, and Soc Son), Ha Noi is also divided into nine urban districts.
Hoan Kiem District is the nerve centre of the city, the major trading zone and the sector of traditional handicrafts. The Old Quarter, a cultural heritage area, is also located in this district.
Ba Dinh District includes the historic Ba Dinh Square and President Ho Chi Minh's Mausoleum. Several Government depart¬ments, embassies and sites of interest are also located in this area.
Dong Da District has seen many suburbs built in the last two or three decades. This district also contains many sites of interest such as Dong Da Hill, Boc Pagoda and Lang Pagoda.
Hat Ba Trung District, named after the Trung Sisters, has undergone major construction work; many new buildings have appeared on the axis of Giai Phong Str. A university village has begun to take shape in the South of the city (Bach Khoa), where the Ministry of Education and Training, the Polytechnic University and the Civil Engineering College are located.
Tay Ho District was established in October 1995, owing to the needs of developing the capital. This region is already famous for Nhat Tan Flower Village, Quang Ba Kumquat Village Nghi Tarn Decorative Plant Village, and more than 20 historic sites listed as such by the State. This is a tourism potential of Tay Ho District.
Thanh Xuan District, established in January 1997, lies along Nguyen Trai Street. The Ha Noi University, Architecture, Pedagogy, Music and Painting Colleges are located in this district.
Cau Giay District was formed in August 1997. It lies along Thang Long Highway to Noi Bai and contains many new schools and research institutes.
Long Bien District, established in November 2003 on the base of the whole area and population of 11 communes and 3 small towns of outlying Gia Lam District.
Hoang Mai District, established at the same time with Long Bien District on the base of the whole area and population of 9 communes and 55 ha area of Tu Hiep Commune which belong to Thanh Tri outlying district, together with the whole area and population of 4 wards of Hai Ba Trung District.


HISTORY
Since the founding of the country, Ha Noi has been a critical area. For more than a thousand years, Ha Noi was the centre of all resistance movements against northern aggressors to secure the independence of the Vietnamese nation.
Twenty-three centuries ago, Co Loa (now part of Dong Anh District) was the capital of Thuc An Duong Vuong's country of Au Lac. With a favorable topography and position at the centre of the Red River Delta, Ha Noi progressively developed into a major settlement. In the fall of 1010, Ly Cong Uan (the founder of the Ly Dynasty) moved the capital from Hoa Lu to Dai La Citadel*.
One day, Emperor Ly saw a golden dragon emerging from the waters of the Red River, near what is now Ha Noi. Interpreting this fact as a good omen, the Emperor ordered that the name of Dai La be changed to Thang Long (ascending dragon). The year 1010 was a historic year for Ha Noi as well as for the whole country.
Throughout the Ly, Tran and Le Dynasties, Thang Long developed into a strong capital with hundreds of palaces, royal residences, magnificent pagodas and temples. Buddhism and Confucianism developed strongly. The Temple of Literature-Royal College (Van Mieu - Quoc Tu Giam), Viet Nam's first University, was built (1076) and thousands of talented scholars came here for training. Thang Long witnessed many glorious victories in the resistance against aggressors; the most symbolic of which were the three successive victories against the Nguyen-Mong army in 1258,1285, and 1288.
Despite its changing names (Thang Long, Dong Do, Dong Kinh, and Ha Noi (1831), the capital has been the heart of the country for almost a thousand years.


TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
The ancient name of Ha Noi, Thang Long, means ascending dragon. In fact cultural and historical remains of the city bear the mark of a rich past and many heroic legends. Exploring the city, the visitor will be able to get a better understanding of the country and its inhabitants.
Historic Vestiges
Ha Noi Citadel
The magnificent, imposing Ha Noi Citadel has stood the test of time over 8 centuries in the land of Thang Long (present-day Ha Noi). In the Ly Dynasty (1009-1225), the Thang Long (Ha Noi) Citadel was built as replace¬ment for Dai La Citadel. During the dynasties of the Tran (1225-1400) and the Le (1428-1788), the Thang Long Citadel underwent some repairs. Under the Nguyen Dynasty, Phu Xuan (Hue) was made the capital of the country and the Ha Noi Citadel only served as the seat of the General Governor of the North. Therefore, its size was reduced.
The ancient Ha Noi Citadel had three encircling walls. Within the inner wall was Tu Cam Thanh (the Purple Forbidden Citadel) where the King and his family lived. This Citadel had been called differently through various dynasties: Cung Thanh in the Ly Dynasty, Long Phuong in the Tran, and Cam Thanh (the Forbidden Citadel) in the Le. Doan Mon functioned as the only gate connecting the Purple Forbidden Citadel with Hoang Thanh (the Royal Citadel).
The Royal Citadel lied inside the middle wall where royal audiences were held. It also housed offices and residences of mandarins. Time has taken its tolls to many gates linking the Royal Citadel with Kinh Thanh (the outmost wall); only Bac Mon (the Northern Gate) in present-day Phan Dinh Phung Street has survived.
Common people inhabited the earthen outmost wall, Kinh Thanh. Kinh Thanh used to have many opened gates. During the Le Dynasty, 16 gates were recorded, but by the Nguyen Dynasty, only 12 of them had survived. Of the five gates remaining until the early 20* century (Cho Dua, Dong Mac, Cau Den, Cau Giay and Quan Chuong), only Quan Chuong gate has been preserved to date. The remaining four gates now live in the memory of Hanoi. The vestiges of the ancient earthen wall can be seen at Dai La, Hoang Hoa Tham, and La Thanh roads.
In preparation for the great events to take place in Thang Long - Ha Noi, much has been done to restore the Thang Long (Ha Noi) Citadel.


Bac Mon
Bac Mon (the Northern Gate) was the only gate of Hoang Thanh that has been preserved almost intact since the Nguyen Dynasty. It used to link Hoang Thanh and Kinh Thanh, which were once separated by a 20m wide ditch.
The finishing touches have been put to the restoration of Bac Mon. Its new wooden door, 16 tons in weight, spreads over 24m2, running on bronze wheels weighing some 80kg. However, the two holes caused by the cannonballs from a French war ship on 25 April 1873 in its outside wall still remain. Bac Mon now is open to tourists.


Q Hau Lau
In the past, Hau Lau (the Back Pavilion) lied behind, or to the north of Hanh Cung, the main group of architectural constructions in the Ha Noi Citadel. According to fengshui (geomancy), the Pavilion would stand guard over the north of Hanh Cung, hence its another name Tmh Bac Lau. Legend has it that whenever the King went on long trips of inspection; his princess would make a stopover at the Pavilion. This gave account to its another name Lau Cong Chua (Princess's Pavilion).


Q Doan Mon
Doan Mon is the original name of this three-entrance Gate. The main entrance was reserved for the King. Above Doan Mon lied a watchtower built of stone and bricks. The restoration of the Gate was finished in October 2001; it has opened to tourists since then.


Q Flag Tower
Built in 1812 under the reign of King Gia Long, the Flag Tower is one of the few constructions in the Ha Noi Citadel, which have survived almost intact. It now lies within the History Military Museum compound.
The Flag Tower consists of three layers of bases and one tower. The pyramid-shaped bases are tiled with bricks. The first layer is 170m in perimeter and 3.1m in height. It has two brick staircases.
Each side of the second storey is 27m long and 3.7m high. There are four doors at this level. On the eastern-looking door are two old Chinese characters meaning "welcoming sunrise," on the western-looking one, "reflec¬tion of light," and on the southern-looking one, "looking towards light". Only the northern-looking door has no old Chinese characters.
Each side of the third storey is 12.8m long and 5.1m high. The door leads to the staircase that turns to the north. The body of the flag tower lies on this storey. It is an eight-sided cylinder, getting narrower as it reaches the height of 18.2m. Each base side of the cylinder is 2m in length. Inside of it is a 54-step spiral staircase leading to the top. For ventilation and light, there are four or five asterisk-shaped holes on each of the eight sides. On the highest location of each side is a sector-shaped hole.
The top of the flag tower takes the shape of an eight-sided room that is 3.3m in height. Each side has one door. In the middle of the room is a round column, 0.4m in diameter.
The roof of the room is where the flag is installed. So, the entire structure is 33.4m high, or 41m high if the pole used for holding the flag is included.
0ld Quarter
The Old Quarter is located north of Hoan Kiem Lake. In the past, each street used to be dedicated to one commercial activity. That is why a lot of streets name begin with the word Hang, meaning merchandise, followed by a word indicating a product or profession. For example, Hang Dao (Peach St.) or Hang Duong (Sugar St.).
Close to Dong Xuan Market is Hang Ma (Paper St.) where traditional votive products made of coloured paper are sold. Every year, on the occasion of the Mid-Autumn Festival (15* day of the 8«i lunar month), Hang Ma St. turns into a toy market. Another very typical street is Hang Thiec (tin products), where the deafening sound of hammers striking tin plates can be heard all day long.
During the Le Dynasty (15'h century), many Chinese were allowed to reside in Thang Long. They chose to settle on Hang Ngang St. At this period, there were gates at the two ends of the street, hence the name Ngang, meaning horizontal barrier.


Ma May Ancient House
Located at 87 Ma May Street, north of Hoan Kiem Lake in the Old Quarter, the delightful house is worth visiting. It is one of rare ancient house still preserved in Ha Noi.
The house was built at the end of the 19th century according to the structure of traditional house. There is a small yard between buildings to have wind and light. The ground floor (facing street) used to selling goods, and the inner used for living and producing, and at the end is kitchen and toilet. On the second floor, the room - facing street used for worshipping and receiving guests, and the inside room used for bedrooms. After restora¬tion many times, the house still kept old architecture decorations of Ha Noi.
The house is open from Monday to Friday, from 9am to 11.30am and from 2 to 5pm.


Dong Xuan Market
Among tens of markets in the capital, such as Mo, Horn, Cua Nam or Ngoc Ha, Dong Xuan is the biggest. It was founded in 1889 in the Dong Xuan Quarter. At first, it was an open- air mar¬ket, but it was later rebuilt with five iron arches and a roof made of zinc-coated iron sheets.
Located near the railway station, at the beginning of Long Bien Bridge, by the Red River, Dong Xuan Market is a convenient place for goods from everywhere to converge. At this market, you can find almost any everyday goods. Dong Xuan Market is also the biggest wholesale market in the North. Today, although it has been expanded and renovated to include three large, modern and spacious floors, it has still kept its original facade architecture.
Dong Xuan Market played a historical part since it was used as a glorious defence system for the'soldiers protecting Ha Noi from the French in 1946. It is open from 6am to 6pm every day.


Ha Noi Cathedral
Ha Noi Cathedral, also known as Saint Joseph's Cathedral, was inaugurated on Christmas Day, 1887, after two years of construction. It was built on the site of the former Bao Thien Tower, which was famous in the ancient capital of Thang Long under the Ly Dynasty (11* ancj 12* centuries). Its design is inspired by the architecture of the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris.
Ha Noi Cathedral is open daily for mass from 5am to 7am and 5pm to 7pm. The entrance gate is at 40 Nha Chung St.


Ha Noi Opera House
The construction of the Ha Noi Opera House was started in 1901 and com¬pleted in 1911. It was modeled on the style of Paris Opera. It is the first opera house in Ha Noi that was built on a large scale and bears the architectural styles of modern European opera houses.
The house is 87m long and 30m wide. The audience's room is about 566m2 and holds more than 900 seats. The ceiling is 30m high and in typically Greek style. The second floor houses many small compartments. The first and second floor has a balcony in the front and two staircases, which are very convenient for going upstairs and downstairs. Behind the stage are working rooms, make-up rooms, the rehearsal room and the meeting hall.
It is a major performing art center in Ha Noi. In front of it is the August Revolution Square which is situated at the axis of Trang Tien and Hang Khay Streets. On August 17, 1945 Ha Nolans witnessed the national yellow-starred red flag flying on the balcony of the second floor of the Opera House. On August 19,1945 Hanoians held a meeting in response to the call of the Viet Minh Troupe for a revolt which was later turned into an armed demonstration to seize power in Ha Noi.
With the support of the French Government in 1997, the House was refurbished to its original conditions. After nearly a century, it appears as beautiful and magnificent as it did in its early days. It can cater to stage many art forms on demand from domestic and overseas art companies.


Ba Dinh Square
Ba Dinh Square is a huge plaza composed of 240 squares of grass covering an area of 32,000m2. On the west side of the esplanade is President Ho Chi Minh's commemoration area where the Ho Chi Minh Museum and President Ho Chi Minh's Stilt House are located.


President Ho Chi Minh's Mausoleum
After two years of construction, President Ho Chi Minh's Mausoleum was officially inaugu¬rated on 29 August 1975. This project was the result of a close collaboration between engineers from Viet Nam and the former Soviet Union in order to keep the remains of President Ho Chi Minh, a great patriot whowas later conferred the title of "World Cultural Activist" in 1990 on the occasion of his centenary birthday. The mausoleum is divided into three floors. The first floor is a terraced stand exclusively used for grand meetings organised at Ba Dinh Square. The second floor is the centre of the mausoleum, where the remains of the president are kept in a chamber, accessible through a series of passages and flights of marble stairs. The upper floor is the roof. The facade of the upper floor bears the inscription "President Ho Chi Minh" in dark violet, precious stone.
The mausoleum is open to the public on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday. In summer, it is open from 7.30am to 10.30 am; in winter, from Sam to 11am. The hours are extended by 30 minutes on Sundays and holidays. The Mausoleum is usually closed from September 5 to December 10 for maintenance. Photography is not allowed inside the mausoleum. For reservation, contact the Board for Organising Homage Paying to President Ho Chi Minh at 5 Ngoc Ha St., Tel: 825 5128.
LAKES


Hoan Kiem Lake
Hoan Kiem Lake constitutes the core of Ha Noi. Its other name, Lake of the Restored Sword, was derived from a legend about Emperor Le Thai To, in which a large turtle came towards him while he was boating on the lake. The turtle grabbed his sword that had secured victory against the Minh aggressors and restored it to its place. Emperor Le Thai To named the lake after this episode.
There are several rare relics around Hoan Kiem Lake. To the north is Hoa Phong Tower, and King Ly Thai To Statue; To the west is King Le Thai To Statue and his Memorial House; The north-east is Ba Kieu Temple, But operation several entertainment amenities. Among them are seven sliding lanes with the average height of 12m, of which two are high-speed lanes ever installed in Viet Nam with the height of 14.5m; a three-meter wave-making pool can bring about waves as high as 1.2m. Adventurers should not miss out on the Tibetan suspension bridge, the hair-raising swinging ropes, and the 3.5-meter diving pool where they can dive using specific devices or spring-boards. The ! 0.6-meter massage pool ensures a relaxed feeling. Children can go to specially-designed pools, sliding lanes and water games. The j 4.5-meter "lazy river" spans 450m, flowing j past five bridges.
The New Sun Park stands adjacent to the j Water Park. Sitting on the 60-meter swing, ' one gets a panoramic view of Ha Noi. The New Sun Park also boasts a three-dimension cinema.new-generation electronic games, and a supermarket. There is a sports complex where tourists can play tennis, badminton, ping-pong, and billiards. Fascinating extras include a pond for fishing, a mini golf court, as well as bumping cars and a roller coaster. As the most modern and exciting theme park in Ha Noi, the Ho Tay Water Park has received millions of visitors so far.

 

Van Mieu - Quoc Tu Giam
Van Mieu – Quoc Tu Giam is a famous fetor, cal and cultural relic consisting of the Temple of Literature and Viet Nam's first university. The Temple of Literature was built in 1070 in honour of Confucius, his followers, and Chu Van An, a moral figure in Vietnamese education. Quoc Tu Giam, or Viet Nam's first university, was built in 1076. It was the first educational school for royal and it was later opened to talented students. Throughout its more than 700 years of activity, thousands of Vietnamese scholars graduated from this university. In 1482, Emperor Le Thanh Tong ordered the erection of stelae with inscriptions of the names, places of birth, and achievements of the graduates who had taken examinations since 1442 to 1779. Presently, 82 stelae stand at Van Mieu. | In 1483 Quoc Tu Giam was changed into Thai j Hoc Vien (Higher Educational Institute). After I decades of war and natural disasters, the | former construction was completely j destroyed. In preparation for the celebration I of the 1000* anniversary of Thang Long I (present day Ha Noi) another construction j has been built following the model of the j previous Thai Hoc Vien on the same ground, j The work started on July 13,1999, including the front hall, the back sanctuary, lean-tos on the left and on the right, the courtyard, and j subsidiary structures. Phase 1 was completed on October 10,2002, the day of celebration of the liberation of Ha Noi. As a result of an area of 1,530m2 has been put into use. This site preserves historical vestiges of a 1 1,000-year-old civilization such as statues of Confucius and his disciples (Van Hui, Zengshen, Zisi, Mencius), and ancient constructions such as Khue Van Pavilion, and Worshipping Hall.
Van Mieu - Quoc Tu Giam is located on Van Mieu Street, 2km west of Hoan Kiem Lake. It is open Tuesday to Sunday from Sam to 11.30 am and 1.30pm to 5pm.


Kim Lien Pagoda
Kim Lien Pagoda was originally built on Nghi Tarn peninsula, on the bank of West Lake. Today it is located in Quang An Village, Tay Ho District, Ha Noi.
According to legend, during the 12* century (1128-1138), Princess Tu Hoa, daughter of King Ly Than Tong, led her royal representa¬tives to this area where they cultivated mulberries and reared silkworms. The pagoda was later built in 1631. Formerly, it had the name Dai Bi, Dong Long, and Tu Hoa. In 1771 Lord Trinh restored the pagoda and changed its name to Kim Lien (Golden Lotus) part of the former Tu Hoa Palace of the Ly Dynasty.
Kim Lien is composed of three pavilions, each of which has 2 roof layers and the appearance of being slightly curved and supple. Apart from its nice disposition, the pagoda has a gate of sophisticated and intricate architecture.
The origin architecture and decoration together with the location of Kim Lien Pagoda gives visitors an opportunity to enjoy tranquility and solitude. It is open daily.


Quan Su Pagoda
Quan Su Pagoda, built in the 17* century, is located at 73 Quan Su Street (between Ly Thuong Kiet Street and Tran Hung Dao Street). The Northern Buddhist Association chose Quan Su Pagoda as its meeting hall in 1934. In 1942, the pagoda was restored to its actual state, and since 1958, the Viet Nam Buddhist Association has had its head office at the pagoda. The pagoda opens daily from 7.30am to 11.30am and 1.30pm to 5.30 pm.


Quan Thanh Temple
The three ancient Chinese characters at the top of the entrance of Quan Thanh Temple read "Tran Vu Quan", which means that the temple is dedicated to Huyen Thien Tran Vu, the God who guarded and administered the north of the country. Saint Tran Vu was both a Vietnamese legendary character (who assisted Emperor An Duong Vuong in chasing away ghosts during the construction of Co Loa Citadel) and a Chinese legendary character (who guarded and administered the North).
Quan Thanh Temple was built during the reign of Emperor Ly Thai To (1010-1028). Special attention should be paid to the black bronze statue of Saint Tran Vu, nearly 4 m in height and 4 tons in weight, was cast in 1677 located in the main hall. Also noticeable, a 1.5m high ancient bronze bell hangs at the top of the three-gate entrance. In the temple, a small black bronze statue of Old Trong, the chief artisan of the bronze casting team who made the bell and the giant statue of Saint Tran Vu. To commemorate the great contribu¬tions of their teacher, Old Trong's students cast his statue and placed it in the temple so that future generations would remember him.
The Temple is located at the southern end of Duong Thanh Nien (Youth Road), near the intersection of Quan Thanh Str., and Duong Thanh Nien, 2km west of Hoan Kiem Lake. It is open daily.


Hai Ba Trung Temple
This temple is also called Dong Nhan Temple because it is located in Dong Nhan Village in Hai Ba Trung District, 2km south of Hoan Kiem Lake. The temple was built in 1142, under the reign of Emperor Ly Anh Tong and was dedicated to the Trung Sisters, Trung Trac and Trung Nhi. Two statues made of clay are located at the inner sanctum of the temple. They are surrounded by statues of the 12 female generals who followed the two sisters in leading their army to defeat their aggres¬sors. On the 5th and 6th days of the 2nd lunar month, there is a grand festival at the temple to commemorate the two national heroines.


One Pillar Pagoda
The original name of the One Pillar Pagoda was Dien Huu Pagoda, which literally means "long lasting happiness and good luck". The pagoda is located in the western part of the city on Ong Ich Khiem St., near Ho Chi Minn's Mausoleum. It was first built in 1049, during the reign of Emperor Ly Thai Tong. According to legend, ageing Emperor Ly Thai Tong, who had no children, often went to pagodas to pray to Buddha for a son. One night, he dreamed that he was granted a private audience with Buddha. Buddha, who was seated on a lotus flower in a square-shaped lotus pond on the western side of Thang Long Citadel, gave the king a baby boy. Months later, when the queen gave birth to a male child, the Emperor ordered the construction of a pagoda supported by only one pillar to resemble the lotus seat of his dream in the honour of Buddha. The pagoda is open daily from Sam to 5pm. Entrance is free.


Tran Quoc Pagoda
Tran Quoc Pagoda, located on an island in West Lake, is the one of the oldest pagodas in Viet Nam; its construction started in 541. Standing at one end of Thanh Nien Road, one can see the towers of the pagoda rising above the lake's surface. Inside, there is a precious statue of Sakyamuni Buddha
entering Nirvana, which is a masterpiece of Vietnamese sculptural art. A stele dating from 1639 tells the story of this pagoda. It is open daily.


Tay Ho Temple
Tay Ho was an ancient village of Thang Long, located to the east of West Lake. At the entrance of the village, there is a temple to worship Mother Lieu Hanh, who had an exquisite talent for playing music, singing, and writing poetry. Mother Lieu Hanh was so kind that she was raised as Thanh Mau (Saint Mother). Every year, on the 15* day of the 1st lunar month, many people come here, not only to worship Thanh Mau in the hope that she will offer them good things and good luck, but also to admire the beautiful landscape of the capital city.


Ngoc Son Temple
Hoan Kiem Lake was already considered the most beautiful lake in the city when Ngoc Son Temple was built on Ngoc (Jade) Island, in the northern part of the lake during the 19* century. It was dedicated to Van Xuong, once considered as the brightest star in Vietnamese literary and intellectual circles, and Tran Hung Dao, the national hero who led the Vietnamese people to victory over Mongol aggressors in the 13'h century.
The temple, as it is seen today, is attributed to the restoration efforts of Nguyen Van Sieu in 1865. Nguyen Van Sieu, a great Hanoian writer, had a large pen-shaped tower (Thap But) built at the entrance of the temple. On the upper part of the tower are three Chinese characters, Ta Thanh Thien, which mean "to write on the blue sky is to imply the height of a genuine and righteous person's strength and will."


MUSEUMS
Ho Chi Minh Museum

This museum is located near Ho Chi Minh's Mausoleum. It was completed on 19 May : 1990 for the anniversary of President Ho Chi Minh's birthday. The museum is a four-story building covering a total area of 10,000m2 and designed in the shape of a lotus flower as a symbol of President Ho's noble character.
The main showroom displays 117,274 documents, articles, pictures and exhibits illustrating the historical events that took place during President Ho Chi Minh's life, as well as important events that occurred in the rest of the world since the end of the 19th century.
The museum contains other rooms such as a library, a large hall, meeting rooms and research rooms.
Since its opening, the museum has welcomed millions of local and international visitors. It is open daily from Sam to 11am and 1.30am to 4.30pm. Photography is forbidden. Cameras and bags must be left at the reception.
Memorial House at 48 Hang A/gang
Hang Ngang St. is in the old quarter of Ha Noi. At 48 Hang Ngang, in a small upstairs room, President Ho Chi Minh drafted the Declaration of Independence founding the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam.
On 25'h August 1945, after returning from Tan Trao, President Ho Chi Minh stayed here and chose this house to be one of his meeting places. He used the living room to receive the representatives of domestic public bodies, overseas Vietnamese and foreign visitors. simple furnishings (including a small wardrobe, a sofa, a round table and an armchair) where Ho Chi Minh composed the Declaration of Independence. Everything has been kept and preserved as a museum.


The Viet Nam History Museum
The Viet Nam History Museum was founded in September 1958. Located behind the Ha Noi Opera House at N"1 Trang Tien Street, the museum contains a great deal of valuable objects, which reflect all the periods of Vietnamese history.
The museum is a beautiful architectural work. It provides an area of 2,000m2 for exhibition. On the ground floor are theme rooms: Prehistory, Viet Nam in the Time of National Building and the Tran Dynasty. The second floor features Viet Nam from the Ho Dynasty to the Nguyen Dynasty and contains a section on Cham culture.
Nearly 7,000 objects and documents depict vividly the long process of development of the Vietnamese community, its undaunted and heroic struggle for thousand years, from its early history up to the August Revolution in 1945. The system of computers installed on the second floor is intended for visitors to search for information effectively.
The exhibits provide systematic, scientific and reliable information for those who want to understand and research on the history of Viet Nam. The museum is a tourist attraction for people inside and outside Viet Nam. The museum is open daily from Sam to 4.30pm.


Revolution Museum
Established in August 1959, the Revolution Museum is situated at 216 Tran Quang Khai Street, Ha Noi.
. The museum introduces Viet Nam - the land and the people from the middle 20th century up to now. The exhibition is divided into:
- National liberation movements of the Vietnamese from 1858 to 1945 (from the 1st
to the 9* showrooms)
- 30 years of struggle against the invaders and protecting the National independence
and unifying the country from 1945 to 1975 (from the 10* to the 24* showrooms)
- Developing the economy from 1976 up to now. The collections of Viet Nam Economy
from 1975 to 2000 are displayed in the room N026, N°27. The present collections of the Vietnamese people and of the people in the world offered President Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Nam Communist Party (rooms N"28 and N029).
Especially, the Revolution Museum has a store with thousand of precious objects and documents of the Vietnamese revolution from 1858 up to now.


The History Military Museum
The History Military Museum, lO.OOOm? in area, was founded on December 22,1958 at 28A Dien Bien Phu Street (Ha Noi). The content of the museum covers 6 periods:
- The history of the Vietnamese nation and
the birth of the Viet Nam People's Army.
- The Vietnamese struggle against French colonialism.
- The Vietnamese struggle against American imperialists.
- The Viet Nam People's Army on the path to a regular modern army. me reopie ana ine Army are oneness - they will be invincible.
- Piece of weaponry displayed in the museum courtyard (airplanes, tanks, heavy artilleries, rockets, mortars, bombs, etc.)
The History Military Museum is the concen¬trated embodiment of the spirit of the Vietnamese people "Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom."
Viet Nam Fine Arts Museum
In June 1966, house N" 66 on Nguyen Thai Hoc Street in Ba Dinh District, Ha Noi, was transformed into the Viet Nam Fine Arts Museum. Two storey buildings are displayed the art works. The exhibition system is divided into 5 parts:
- Fine arts of Prehistory: Consist of the objects from the Bronze Age and Iron Age
Ancient fine arts from the 11<h to the 19th centuries: Consists of the objects of Ly, Tran,
Le, Mac, Tay Son, and Nguyen Dynasties. Fine arts in the 20* century: Contemplate
times fine arts (1925-1945) and modern fine arts (1945 up to now).


Folk painting
Traditional pottery and ceramics
Viet Nam Fine Arts Museum is a lively historical treasure depicting the origins and evolution of Vietnamese fine arts. It is open from Tuesday to Sunday from Sam to 11.30am and 1.30pm to 4.30pm.
Viet Nam Museum of Ethnology
Located on Nguyen Van Huyen Road in Cau Giay District, west of Ha Noi, the Viet Nam Museum of Ethnology opened at the end of 1997. Since then, it has attracted the